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Theme: “Food”

Student: Sophy (IX form)

Teacher: Smirnova T. V.

Kostanai, 2002

P L A N:

Food celebrates life.

Food nourishes language.

Food for different cultures:

From land and sea

From high in the mountains

Meals in Britain

American food and drink

Kazakh traditional dishes

Food is symbolic.

Food as a fad or cult.

Plan a healthful diet.

Food is the staff of life.

“Every man is the builder of a temple called his body (1817-1862) ”

Thoreau, Henry Davia

English will have become an important tool for communication and
discovery rather than just another class to attend. And we would like to
look at the all-important topic, Food.

Food Celebrates Life.

Have you ever noticed how much of our life is centered on food? Look
at all the meetings held, decisions made, and mergers consummated over a
meal: power breakfast, power lunch, dinners, banquets, receptions, and
those endless toasts. Consider all the celebrations where food is
all-important: weddings, birthdays, religious feast days, national
holidays, etc. Food is the great icebreaker when people meet for
pleasure or business. Food is at the center of many of our important

Food Nourishes Language.

Because of this importance, much of our language (regardless of the
language) contains references to food. These references conjure up
images worth a thousand words each. The idiom page contains several
references to food and shows how these are used in a non-food-related
discussion. Think about the idioms and expressions in your native
language related to food and how and when you use them. Do you use food
expressions to describe someone’s physical characteristics (e.g., He’s
as skinny as a string bean; his belly shakes like a bowl full of
jelly.); or, to describe someone’s personality (e.g., Harry is a cre3am
puff; she’s as sweet as sugar.) or, to describe a situation or activity
(e.g., Something is fishy here; That crossword puzzle is a piece of
cake.). How we use food expressions depends on how we perceive the food,
or the culture associated with the food.

Food For Different Cultures.

Have you ever stopped to really think about what you and your
family eat

everyday and why? Have you ever stopped to think what other people eat?
In the movie Indiana Jones and Temple of Doom, there are two scenes in
which the two characters are offered meals from a different culture. One
meal, meant to break the ice, consisted of insects. The second meal was
a lavish banquet that featured such delicacies as roasted beetles, live
snakes, eyeball soup, and chilled monkey brains for dessert. Some
cultures eat such things as vipers and rattlesnakes, bush rats, dog
meat, horsemeat, bats, animal heart, liver, eyes, and insects of all

Often the differences among cultures in the foods they eat are
related to the differences in geography and local resources. People who
live near water ( the sea, lakes, and rivers) tend to eat more fish and
crustaceans. People who live in colder climates tend to eat heavier,

who live in colder climates tend to eat heavier,
fatty foods. However, with the development of a global economy, food
boundaries and differences are beginning to dissipate: McDonalds is now
on every continent expect Antarctica, and tofu and yogurt are served all
over the world.

Mexico: Beans and rice

Corn tortillas (2 servings)

Black beans (2 servings)

Rice (2 servings)


Morocco: Couscous4

Couscous (wheat pasta)






India: Sag paneer4

Indian cheese (2 servings)





Rice (2 servings)

Chapati (wheat bread)

Italy: Spaghetti

Spaghetti (2 servings)

Tomato sauce (2 servings)

Parmesan cheese

Chicken breasts, baked

Japan: Tempura5







Egg white

Rice (2 servings)

USA: Barbecue chicken and potato salad5

Chicken breast, barbecue





Corn (1 ear)

What do people eat?

Many factors determine the foods that people eat. Geography and
climate, tradition and history: They all go into our meals. In European
country of Spain and the Asian country of Nepal, different cultures and
customs affect what people eat.

From Land and Sea.

Spain occupies most of the Iberian Peninsula, on the western edge of
Europe. It is nearly surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean and the
Mediterranean Sea.

Spain’s dry climate and poor soil make farming difficult. Extensive
irrigation allows farmers to raise strawberries and rice in dry areas.
Vegetables and citrus trees grow on the coastal plains, and olives and
grapes grow in the river valleys.

The grasslands of the large dry central plateau are used for grazing
sheep, goats, and cattle. People in this region eat roasted and boiled
meats. They also raise pigs for ham and spicy sausage called chorizo.
And people all over the country eat lots of seafood from the Atlantic
and the Mediterranean.

One classic Spanish dish, paella, includes sausage, mussels, lobster,
or chicken, plus red pepper, peas, tomatoes, and saffron rice. Peasants
were the first to make paella, using whatever food was available. But
this dish and others also reflect Spain’s history of traders,
conquerors, and explorers who brought a variety of food by land and by

Phoenicians from the Middle East introduced grapes to Spain in about
1100B.C. Hundreds of years later, Romans brought olives from what is now
Italy. In the 8th century A.D., Moors (Muslim Arabs and Berbers from
Africa) introduced shortgrain rice and za faran, or saffron – the spice
that colors rice yellow. And in the 1400s, 1500s, and 1600s, Spanish
explorers and traders returned home with nutmeg and cloves from the East
Indies: and peppers, tomatoes, potatoes, and chocolate from the

From High in the Mountains.

Nepal is a landlocked country in the Himalayas, the highest mountain
range in the world. Nepal has three distinct geographical zones –
lowlands; hills, mountains, and valleys; and the Great Himalayan Range –

t Himalayan Range –
with subtropical to alpine-arctic temperatures and wide variations in
vegetation and animal life.

Most people in Nepal are farmers. They grow fruits, fruits, and other
crops in the lowlands, where temperatures are the warmest. Rice and corn
grow in terraced, or stairlike, fields in the cooler hill regions. And
potatoes and barley are the staple, or chief, crops at higher
elevations, where temperatures are the coolest.

The Nepal raise goats, cattle, and yaks for dairy products. Meat is
eaten mostly on special occasions. Religious rules affect which meats
people in Nepal eat: Hindus, who make up almost 90 percent of the
population, do not eat beef, and Muslims do not eat pork. The Buddhist
religion prohibits the killing of any animals but allows the eating of
meat, so Buddhists hire butchers to slaughter animals for food.

A typical family meal in Nepal might include daal bhat (rice with
lentil gravy) or chapati (a flatbread), steamed vegetables, and achaar
(a paste of spiced pickled fruits). About 90 percent of the Nepalese
people live in rural areas. They often lack electricity for
refrigerators or for cooking, so they rely on dried foods such as
grains, lentils, and beans.

People carry traditions and foods with them when they move from one
place to another. You might recognize examples when you look at your
classmates’ special family foods or at specialty restaurants in your

Meals in Great Britain.

The two features of life in England that possibly give visitors their
worst impressions are the English weather and English cooking.

A traditional English breakfast is a very big meal – sausages, bacon,
eggs, tomatoes, and mushrooms. People who do have a full breakfast
say that it is

quite good. The writer Somerset Maugham once gave the following advice:
“If you want to eat well in England, eat three breakfasts daily.” But
nowadays it is often a rather hurried and informal meal. Many people
just have cereal with milk and sugar, or toast with marmalade, jam, or
honey. Marmalade and jam are not the same! Marmalade is made from
oranges and jam is made from other fruits. The traditional breakfast
drink is tea, which people have with cold milk. Some people have coffee,
often instant coffee, which is made with just hot water. Many visitors
to Britain find this coffee disgusting!

For many people lunch is a quite meal. In cities there are lot of
sandwich bars, where office workers can choose the kind of bread they
want – brown, white, or a roll – and then all sorts of salad and meat or
fish to go in the sandwich. Pubs often serve good, cheap food both hot
and cold. School-children can have a hot meal at school, but many just
take a snack from home – a sandwich, a drink, some fruit and perhaps
some crisps. British kids eat more sweets than any other nationality.

“Tea” means two things. It is a drink and a meal! Some people have
afternoon tea, with sandwiches, cakes, and, of course, a cup of tea.

cup of tea.
Cream teas are popular. You have scones (a kind of cake) with cream and

The evening meal is the main meal of the day for many people. They
usually have it quite early, between 6.00 and 8.00, and often the whole
family eats together.

On Sundays many families have a traditional lunch. They have roast
meat, either beef, lamb, chicken, or pork, with potatoes, vegetables,
and gravy. Gravy is a sauce made from the meat juice.

The British like food from other countries, too, especially Italian,
French, Chinese, and Indian. The British have in fact always imported
food from abroad. From the time of the Roman invasion foreign trade was
a major influence on British cooking. Another important influence on
British cooking was of course

the weather. The good old British rain gives us rich soil and green
grass, and means that we are able to produce some of the finest
varieties of meat, fruit and vegetables, which don’t need fancy sauces
or complicated recipes to disguise their taste. People often get
take-away meals – you buy the food at the restaurant and than bring it
home to eat. Eating in Britain is quite international!

British Cuisine.

Some people criticize English food. They say it’s unimaginable,
boring, tasteless, it’s chips with everything and totally overcooked

The basic ingredients, when fresh, are so full of flavour that
British haven’t had to invent sauces to disguise their natural taste.
What can compare with fresh pees or new potatoes just boiled and served
with butter? Why drown spring lamb in wine or cream and spices, when
with just one or two herbs it is absolutely delicious?

If you ask foreigners to name some typically English dishes, they
will probably say “Fish and chips” then stop. It is disappointing, but
true that, there is no tradition in England of eating in restaurants,
because the food doesn’t lend itself to such preparations. English
cooking is found at home so it is difficult to find a good English
restaurant with a reasonable prices.

In most cities in Britain you’ll find Indian, Chinese, French and
Italian restaurants. in London you’ll also find Indonesian, Mexican,
Greek… Cynics will say that this is because English have no “cuisine”
themselves, but this is not quite the true.

English breakfast.

All people in the world have breakfast, and most people eat and drink
the same things for breakfast. They may eat different things for all the
other meals in the day, but at breakfast time, most people have the same
things to eat and drink – Tea or Coffee, Bread and butter, Fruit.

Some people eat meat for breakfast. English people usually eat meat

breakfast time, but England is a cold country. It is bad to eat meat for
breakfast in hot country. It is bad to eat too much meat; if you eat
meat for breakfast, you eat meat three times a day; and that is bad in a
hot country. It is also bad to eat meat and drink tea at the same time,
for tea makes meat hard so that the stomach cannot deal with it

t the stomach cannot deal with it

The best breakfast is Tea or Coffee, bread and Butter, fruit. That is
the usual breakfast of most people in the world.

How tea was first drunk in Britain.11

By the time tea was first introduced into this country (1660), coffee
had already been drunk for several years.

By 1750 tea had become the most popular beverage for all types and
classes of people – even though a pound of tea cost a skilled worker
perhaps a third of his weekly wage!

Tea ware.

Early tea cups had no handles, because they were originally imported
from China. Chinese cups didn’t (and still don’t) have handles.

As tea drinking grew in popularity, it led to a demand for more and
more tea ware. This resulted in the rapid growth of the English pottery
and porcelain industry, which not long after became world famous for its

The tea break.

Nowadays, tea drinking is no longer a proper, formal, «social»
occasion. We don't dress up to “go out to tea” anymore. But one tea
ceremony is still very important in Britain – the Tea Break! Millions of
people in factories and offices look forward to their tea breaks in the
morning and afternoon Things to do.

Make a display of as many pictures, cut from magazines. As you can
showing different kinds of tea pots and tea cups.

Design your own kind of tea pots and tea cups.

American food and drink.

The popular view outside the U.S.A. that Americans survive on
cheeseburgers, Cokes and French fries is as accurate as the American
popular view that the British live on tea and fish’n’chips, the Germans
only on beer, bratwurst, and sauerkraut, and the French on red wine and

This view comes from the fact that much of what is advertised abroad
as “American food” is a very pretty flat, tasteless imitation. American
beef, for example, comes from specially grain-fed cattle, not from cows
that are raised mainly for milk production. As a result, American beef
is more tender and tasted better than what is usually offered as an
“American steak” in Europe. When sold abroad, the simple baked potato
that comes hot and whole in foil often lacks the most important element,
the famous Idaho potato. This has different texture and skin that comes
from the climate and soil in Idaho.

Even sometimes as basic as barbecue sauces shows difference from many
of the types found on supermarket shelves overseas. A fine barbecue
sauce from the Southside of Chicago has its own fire and soul. The Texas
have a competition each year for the hottest barbecue sauce (the recipes
are kept secret).

America has two strong advantages when it comes to food. The first is
that as the leading agriculture nation, she has always been well
supplied with fresh meats, fruits, and vegetables in great variety at
relatively low prices. This is one reason why steak or beef roast is
probably the most “typical” American food; it has always been more
available. But good Southern-fried chicken also has champions, as do

ions, as do
hickory-smoked or sugar-cured hams, turkey, fresh lobster, and other
seafood such as crabs or clams.

In a country with widely different climates and many fruit and
vegetable growing regions, such items as fresh grapefruit, oranges,
lemons, melons, cherries, peaches, or broccoli, iceberg lettuce,
avocados, and cranberries do not have to be imported. This is one
reason why fruit dishes and salads are so

common. Family vegetable gardens have been very popular, both as a
hobby and as a way to save money, from the days when most Americans were
farmers. They also help to keep fresh food on the table.

The second advantage America has enjoyed is that immigrants have
brought with them, and continue to bring, the traditional foods of their
countries and cultures. The variety of foods and styles is simply
amazing. Whether Armenian, Basque, Catalonian, Creole, Danish, French,
German, Greek, Hungarian, Italian, traditional Jewish, Latvian, Mexican,
Vietnamese or what have you, these traditions are now also at home in
the U.S.A.

There seem to be four trends in America at present which are
connected with foods and dining. First, there has been a notable
increase in the number of reasonably priced restaurants which offer
specialty foods. These include those that specialize in many varieties
and types of pancakes, those that offer only fresh, baked breakfast
foods, and the many that are buffets or salad bars. Secondly, growing
numbers of Americans are more regularly going out to eat in restaurants.
One reason is that they are not many American women do not feel that
their lives are best spent in the kitchen. They would rather pay a
professional chef and also enjoy a good meal. At the same time, there is
an increase in fine cooking as a hobby for both men and women. For some
two decades now, these have been popular television series on all types
and styles of cooking, and the increasing popularity can easily be seen
in the number of best-selling specialty cookbooks and the number of
stores that specialize in often exotic cooking devices and spices.

A third is that as a result of nationwide health campaigns, Americans
in general are eating a much light diet. Cereals and grain foods, fruit
and vegetables, fish and salads are emphasized instead of heavy and
sweet foods. Finally, there is the international trend to “fast food”
chains which sell pizza, hamburgers, Mexican foods, chicken, salads
and sandwiches, seafoods and

various ice creams. While many Americans and many other people resent
this trend and while, as many be expected, restaurants also dislike it,
many young, middle-aged, and old people, both rich and poor, continue to
buy and eat fast foods.

Hot Dogs.

Tad Dorgan, a sports cartoonist, gave the frankfurter its nickname in
1906. Munching on a frank at a baseball game, he concluded that it
resembled a dachshund’s body and put that whimsy into a drawing, which
he captioned “Hot dog”.

Sausages go all the way back to ancient Babylon, but the hot dog was

all the way back to ancient Babylon, but the hot dog was
brought to the U.S.A. shortly before the Civil War by a real Frankfurter
– Charles Feltman, a native of Frankfurt, Germany, who opened a stand in
New York and sold grilled sausages on warmed rolls – first for a dime
apiece, later, a nickel.

The frank appealed to busy Americans, who – as an early 19th century
comment put it – tend to live by the maxim of “gobble, gulp and go”.
Nowadays Americans consume more than 12 billion frankfurters a year.


Modern hamburgers on a bun were first served at the St. Louis Fair in
1904, but Americans really began eating them in quantity in the 1920s,
when the White Castle snack bar chain featured a small, square patty at
a very low price. Chopped beef, tasty and easily prepared, quickly
caught on as family fare, and today hamburger stands, drive-ins, and
burger chains offer Americans their favorite hot sandwich at every turn.

The history of the hamburger dates back to medieval Europe. A Tartar
dish of shredded raw beef seasoned with salt and onion juice was brought
from Russia to Germany by early German sailors. The lightly broiled
German chopped-beef cake, with pickles and pumpernickel on the side, was
introduced to America in the early 1800s by German immigrants in the


It was early Dutch settlers and the Pennsylvania Germans who
introduced the yeasty, deep-fried doughnut to America. To the Dutch it
was a festive food, eaten for breakfast on Shrove Sunday.

Legend has it that doughnut got its hole in 1847 when Hanson Gregory,
a lad later to become a sea captain, complained to his mother that her
fried cakes were raw in the center and poked hole4s in the next batch
before they were cooked.

During World War I, when the Salvation Army served them to the
troops, doughnuts really took off as popular fare. Since then, coffee
and doughnuts become a national institution. Stores sell them plain,
sugared, frosted, honey-dipped, or jam-filled.

Apple pie

At its best, with a savory filling and crisp, light-brown crust,
apple pie has long been favorite on American tables.

Apples and apple seems were among the precious supplies the early
colonists brought to the New World. The first large apple orchards were
planted near Boston by William Blaxton in the 1600s. When he moved to
Rhode Island in 1635, he developed the tart Rhode Island Greening, still
considered one of America’s finest apple pies.

As the fruit became abundant, many settlers ate apple pie at every
meal. Garnished with a chunk of cheese, it was a favorite colonial
breakfast dish. By the 18th century apple pie became so popular that
Yale College in New Haven served it every night at supper for more than
100 years.

America’s love affair with apple pie has remained constant. Today’s
housewives, pressed for time, can shortcut the tradition by buying the
pastry ready-made at bakeries and supermarkets. Many variation on the
good old original are available, but the classical apple pie,

nal are available, but the classical apple pie,
irresistible when topped with a slice of rat-trap cheese or slathered
with vanilla ice cream, is still America’s favorite.

Potato chips.13

George Crumb, an American Indian who was the chef at Moon’s Lake
House in Saratoga Springs, New York, in the mid-19th century,
was irked when a

finicky dinner guest kept sending back his French fried potatoes,
complaining they were too thick. In exasperation, Crumb shaved the
potatoes into tissue-thin slice and deep-fried them in oil. He had a
dishful of crisp “Saratoga chips” presented to the guest, who was
delighted with the new treat.

Potato chips became the specialty of Moon’s Lake House and, later,
America’s crunchiest between-meal snack.


America’s best known soft drink was first concocted by an Atlanta
pharmacist in 1886. The syrup was cooked up by John S. Pemberton from
extracts of coca leaves and the kola nut. He then organized the
Pemberton Chemical Company, and Coca-Cola syrup mixed with plain water
was sold in a local drug-store for 5 cents a glass.

Sales were slow until in 1887 a prosperous Atlanta druggist, Asa G.
Candler, bought the Coca-Cola formula – then as now a carefully guarded
secret – and added carbonate water to the syrup instead of plain water.

Advertisement stressing the words “delicious” and “refreshing” and
carry coupons for free Coca-Cola added to the increase in consumption. A
system of independent local bottling companies was developed, and the
flared bottle, familiar worldwide and said to resemble the hobble skirt,
was designed in 1916.

In 1919 the company was sold out for $25 million to a group headed by
Ernest Woodruff. Under his son, Robert W. Woodruff, Coca-Cola rapidly
expanded its market. By the mid-1970s more than 150 million Cokes a day
were sold in country all over the world.

Today Coca-Cola has to compete with many other soft drinks, but it is
still one of the symbols of the United States.

Kazakh traditional dishes.15

The mode of life of people, traditional craft, interrelations.
Customs and traditions are, perhaps, well comprehended through
traditional dishes. The

methods of cooking, which the Kazakh people used were closely linked
with the culture and mode of life. The table manners of nomads, filled
with so many customs, rituals, special behavior find its place in our
time. The strict nomadic life laws have created moral and ethic norm.
The whole clan and tribe shared the joys and sorrows of life, any
unexpected traveler was an honored guest. Any steppe inhabitant knew,
that he was a welcome guest and had a right to his share. This steppe
tradition was strictly observed and is still observed today by the host.
Some time later this violation merited a sort of punishment. That
explains why every host regarded the ritual of hospitality as sacred
rule and welcomed guests warmly and with all attention and kindly saw
them off with good wishes.

The main traditional dish of Kazakh is besbarmak. It is mostly served

he main traditional dish of Kazakh is besbarmak. It is mostly served
for the guests and eaten by hands (bes barmak – means five finger).
Besbarmak is usually cooked of fat mutton and parts of smoked horse meat
and horse delicacies like kazy and shyzhyk. The meat is boiled and
separately is boiled thin paste. Boiled parts of meat are put on the
paste and spiced with a special flavoring called tuzduk. As the custom
demands the host serves the meal in special crockey – tabak. The
bas-tabak, which is placed before the most honourable guests is used to
serve the mutton head, zhambas, horse meat delicacy and other fatty
parts. The esteemed guest (usually the oldest one) cuts bit and part
from the head and offers them to the other guests at the table. The
secret of distribution of parts of the meat from the head lies in
traditional wishes. When given the palate, it expresses the wish – “be
wise and eloquent”, the larynx – a gift to sing, skin of forehead – “be
the first among equals”. Meanwhile one or two dzhigits (young man),
sitting next to the esteemed guest start cutting the boiled parts of
meat to pieces and the dish is again spiced with tuzdyk. The guests are
offered to help themselves to the dish. The youth and children usually
sit at sides of the table dastarkhan. They receive meat directly

from the elders. The custom is called asatu and symbolized the desire
of the youth to experience the long and good life the elders have
experienced. When all the meat and sorpa ( soup with large fat content)
have been eaten and drank, the most respected guest thanks the hostess
on behalf of all the guests and blesses the hosts of that house.

In our days the main features of this old ritual and table etiquette
exist, are carefully kept, followed and passes to their traditions.

Food is Symbolic.16

Throughout history, food has been used as a symbol of wealth or
gratitude, or to demonstrate position and power. In some cultures,
eating lavish and exotic meals is a sign of wealth and power, whereas
eating only the basic foods is a of sign belonging to a more common
class. In some cultures, the offer of a glass of cool, clean water is
the greatest compliment or honor one can receive. In some cultures,
whenever you receive s guest, whether for business or pleasure, you must
offer them something to eat or drink: the more lavish the offering
signifies the amount of respect or honor you give that person. Diet is
not a consideration.

For centuries, food has been a key element in religious rituals. Food
was used as offering to the gods and their high priests and priestesses.
Food has been considered a form of tithing to a church or religious
sect. Certain foods such as lamp, bread, and bitter herbs are religious
symbols in some ceremonies.

The sharing of food demonstrates acceptance, friendship, family, and
love. To be invited to “break bread” with a family, in many cultures
shows respect and is a sign of friendship and acceptance. Literature is
full of examples of lovers using food to show their devotion and respect

ull of examples of lovers using food to show their devotion and respect
foe each other: one of the most famous being the line from the Rubaiyal
of Omar Khayyam, “ A Jug of Wine, a Loaf of Bread – and Thou…” in the
West, chocolate and sweets have long been a symbolic exchange of
affection between lovers. So, why do we eat the things we do? First,
let’s established that not everything we like to meat is all that good
for us, unfortunately. For example, there is much debate over the value
of chocolate – yes, it does have some redeeming qualities aside from
just tasting wonderful.

Food as a Fad or Cult.17

Food has often found a niche for itself in popular culture. Eating or
entertaining with certain foods has often been a fad or cult. Whichever
group you associate with or aspire to be like will dictate which fad you
follow. For example, in the late “70s and 80s in the U.S., salads were
the “in” food for the yuppie crowd (the young, upwardly-mobile group).
Salad bars (restaurants where salad is the primary food) sprang up
everywhere. There were so many types of salads, garnishes, and salad
dressings that were invented, it was impossible to keep up with them

Of course many people ate salads because they were on diets. Thin was
“in” and so everyone who was “in” or aspiring to be “in” wanted to lose
weight. Actually, throughout most of the ’80s and 90s there has been an
obsession with dieting. Now, however, dieting is not a politically
correct word. There are so many schemes and foods out in the stores for
people to use lose weight; there are even substances that promise if you
take them you can eat all you want and still lose weight.

Aside form diets and salads, there are the foods that people eat
because their favorite athlete, musician, or actor eats that brand or
kind for food. The cultural icons over the last several years have been
exploited to promote the sale of different foods or food substitutes.
Whatever Michael Jordan, Mel Gibson, or Oprah Winfrey drink and eat, the
ardent fans, wannabes and admirers worldwide try to eat and drink.
People don’t always pay attention to how truly nutritious something is;
if the in-crowed or the cultural icon they aspire to be like eat it,
they will get it. Pop culture is a powerful force.

Food is the Staff of life.18

Regardless of how you view food, you need it to live. You need the
right kinds of food in the right amounts to have a healthy life. Your
needs for different kinds of food change as grow and mature. Everyone
needs the three key nutrients that provide the body with energy and the
necessary building blocks: carbohydrates (sugar and starch), fat, and
protein. Unfortunately, in our world today, not every one has access to
all of these all the time. World hanger is a global problem that needs
to be addressed by all nations.

The right type and kind of foods the body needs to grow, develop, and
stay healthy are not known by everyone. A good, daily, balanced diet is
key to a healthy life. Do you have a balanced diet? Do you know what you

thy life. Do you have a balanced diet? Do you know what you
eat every

day? Why do you think you eat the foods you eat? Eating the right food
everyday not only nourishes our bodies, but it also nourishes our
spirits, our creativity and thinking, and our language and interaction
with other people.

What Counts as a serving?19

The amount of food that counts as a serving is listed. If you eat a
large portion, count it as more than one serving. For example, Ѕ cup of
cooked pasta counts as one serving in the bread, cereal, rice, and pasta
group. If you eat 1 cup of pasta that would be 2 servings. If you eat
less than Ѕ cup, count it as part of a serving.

For mixed foods, do the best you can to decide the food groups and to
estimate the servings of the main ingredients. Pizza would count in the
Bread Group (crust), the Milk Group (cheese), and the Vegetable Group
(tomato). Beef stew would count in the Meat Group and Vegetable Group.

Bread, Cereal, Rice, and Pasta Group


Hamburger roll, bagel, English muffin


Rice, pasta, cooked

Pain crackers, small

Breakfast cereal

Pancakes, 4-in diameter




Cake, Frosted


Pie, fruit, 2-crust

Vegetable Group

Vegetables, cooked

Vegetables, leafy, raw

Vegetables, nonleafy raw, chopped

Potatoes, scalloped

Potato salad

French fries

Fruit Group

Whole fruit: apple, orange. Banana

Fruit, raw or canned

Fruit juice, unsweetened


Milk, yogurt, and cheese Group

Skim milk

Lowfat milk 2 %

Whole milk

Chocolate milk,

2 %

Lowfat yogurt, plain

Lowfat yogurt, fruit

1 slice



Ѕ cup




1 large(2oz)

1medium (2oz)

1medium (2oz)

1 average slice

2 medium

1 average slice

2 medium

Ѕ cup


Ѕ cup

Ѕ cup

Ѕ cup


1 medium

Ѕ cup

ѕ cup

ј whole

1 cup

1 cup

1 cup

1 cup

8 oz
































Natural cheddar cheese

Processed cheese

Mozzarella, part skim

Ricotta, part skim

Cottage cheese, 4 % fat

Ice cream

Ice milk

Frozen yogurt

Meat, Poultry, Fish, Dry Beans, Eggs, and Nuts Group

Lean meat, poultry, fish, cooked

Ground beef, cooked

Chicken, with skin


Dry beans and peas, cooked

Peanut butter


Fats, oils, and Sweets

Butter, margarine


Salad dressing

Reduced calorie salad dressing

Sour cream

Sugar, jam, jelly


Fruit drink, ade

Chocolate bar


Fruit sorbet

Gelatin dessert

1 Ѕ oz

2 oz

1 Ѕ oz

Ѕ cup

Ѕ cup

Ѕ cup

Ѕ cup

Ѕ cup

3 oz

3 oz

3 oz

2 slices (1 oz)

1 (1 oz)

2 Tbsp (1 oz)

1/3 cup (1 oz)

1 tsp

1 Tbsp

1 Tbsp

1 Tbsp

2 Tbsp

1 tsp

12 fl oz

12 fl oz

1 tsp

Ѕ cup

1 tsp

1 tsp



























Plan a healthy Diet

Using the food Guide Pyramid and “What Counts as a Serving?” plan a

nts as a Serving?” plan a
full day’s diet that contains the recommended number of servings for
each food group. Be sure that the meals you create are ones you would
actually eat.

Food Items How Number of Total number

Much servings of serving

Bread Group

Vegetable Group

Fruit Group

Milk Group

Meat Group

Fats, Oils, and Sweets

Food Guide Pyramid.

The U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Guide Pyramid is an outline
for making daily food choices for a healthful diet. Researchers now know
that eating a healthful diet reduces the risk of heart disease, high
blood pressure, stroke, certain cancers, and the most common type of

The pyramid shape is related to the recommended daily amounts of food
from each of five major groups and from a sixth grouping of “extras”.
Most people should eat more servings of foods from groups closer to the
base and fewer servings of food from groups closer to the trip.

For good health you need foods from the five major food groups shown
in the Food Guide Pyramid. At the base of the Pyramid is the Bread
Group, which includes bread, cereal, rice, and paste. On the next level
are the Vegetable Group – including yellow, root, and green leafy
vegetables – and the Fruit Group. On the third level are the Milk Group
– which includes milk, yogurt, and cheese – and the Meat Group, which
includes meat, poultry, fish, dry beans, eggs, and nuts. The sixth
grouping – Fats, Oils, and Sweets – is shown at the tip of the Pyramid;
these extras are grouped together because they each should be used

The knowledge of this theme “Food” makes these practical and
theoretical valuable for those who wanted to grow thin or to grow fat.

Also material of this report is incased knowledge and enriched this
theme. It is the help for English teachers and students who want to know
more than they have in their books.


The magazine “Forum” volume 36 number 4 Oct-Dec 1998

The book “Brush your English” E.D. Mihailova and A.Y. Romanovich,
Moscow. 2001

The book “ 1000 English topics” V. Kaverina and V. Boiko, Moscow, 2000

The book “ Happy English reader”

The book “American Studies” V.M. Pavlotskei, St. Peterburg, 1997

The book “The USA history and the present” L. Khalilova, 1999

The book “Kazakh in brief” G.H. Molkha, Astana

The book “English for students” I.A. Klapalchenko, Mpscow, 1997

From the magazine “Forum”.

From the magazine “Forum”.

From the magazine “Forum”.

From the magazine “Forum”.

From the magazine “Forum”.

From the magazine “Forum”.

From the magazine “English”.

From the book “Brush up your English” E. D. Mihailova and A. Y.

From the book “100 English topics” Kaverina V. And Boiko V.

From the site “www. English for everyone.ru”

11 From the book “Happy English reader”

12 From the book “ American Studies” Pavlotskei V. M. , St. Petersburg,

From the book “ The USA history and the present” L. Khalilova

and the present” L. Khalilova

From the book “The USA history and the present” L. Khalilova

14 From the book “The USA history and the present” L. Khalilova.

15 From the book “Kazakhstan in brief” G. H. Molkha, Astana, 2002.

16 From the magazine “English”.

17 From the magazine “forum”.

18 From the book “English for students” I. A. Klepalchenko.

19 From the magazine “Forum”



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