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Two approches to the scientific management


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Historical Review of the Principals of Management

The traditional model characterised as administration under "the formal
control of political leadership, based on a strictly hierarchical model
of bureaucracy, staffed by permanent , neutral and anonymous officials,
motivated only by the public interest, serving any governing party
equally and not contributing to policy but merely administering those
policies decided by the politicians" (Public Management and
Administration and Introduction by Owen E Huges, p.23).

By the 1920s this model was fully formed and continued with extremely
little change for at least fifty years. "Young" practitioners were so
assured of their theories and they believed that the improvement of
government and its administration would promote a better life for all.

After the critique of the theory of the separation between
administration and politics considered as the myth to tolerate that
politicians and administrators could be separated, the argument took
place between scholars of public administration.

Nevertheless the political control and the theoretical basis of the
bureaucracy were thoroughly established and unchanged, there were public
sector adaptations of management theory. The row of imports from the
private sector took place and the most important is the scientific
management. That was explained by pretending that Public Management is
able to be non-political and hence the operational methods used in the
public sector would be the same as those used in the private sector.

But the larger waste is still human resources, like human efforts, which
go on every day through such of our acts as are blundering, ill-directed
or inefficient, and which referred to as a lack of "national

Scientific Management School

The basic assumption of this school is the philosophy that workers, at
the operational level, are economically motivated and that they will
put forth their best efforts if they are rewarded financially. The
emphasis is on maximum output with minimum strain, eliminating waste and
efficiency. The work of Frederick Winslow Taylor dominates the thinking
of this "school".

Biography of F.Taylor

Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856-1915) was a mechanical engineer whose
writings on efficiency and scientific management were widely read.
Taylor devised the system he called scientific management, a form of
industrial engineering that established the organisation of work. The
main goal of his theory was to increase productivity. And at the same
time he did not favour unions or industrial democracy. That's why his
theory is regarded as authoritarian style of administration.

Efficiency was the most important theme of Taylor's works. As a steel
works manager in Philadelphia, he was interested in knowing how to get
more work out of workers, who are "naturally lazy and engage in
systematic soldiering." This attitude, he found, was contributed to by

he found, was contributed to by
poor management. He observed "when a naturally energetic man works for a
few days beside a lazy one, the logic of the situation is unanswerable.
"Why should I work hard when the lazy fellow gets the same pay that I do
and does only half as much work?". He proposed using scientific
research methods to discover the one best way to do a job.

Taylor's efforts were resented by unions and managers alike: managers
because their intuition and discretion were challenged, unions because
their roles were questioned. Taylor was fired from his original job in
Philadelphia. He then went to Bethlehem Steel, where he again was fired
after three years. The unions, indignant by this time, were instrumental
in getting his methods investigated by a special congressional
committee; they succeeded in forbidding the use of "stop watches" and
"bonuses" in army arsenals until World War II. However, his concepts
spread to Europe and Great Britain and received impetus in the Soviet
Union after the Revolution. Many maintain that this movement represents
techniques only and "hinders" the development of a philosophy.

Conception of Frederic Taylor

Tayrol's attitude toward work was that man and machine are similar. He
stated that "it is no single element, but rather this whole combination,
that constitutes scientific management, which may be summarised as:
Science, not rule of thumb; Harmony, not discord; Co-operation, not
individualism; Maximum output, in place of restricted output; The
Development of each man to his greatest efficiency and prosperity."

Taylor believed that the best management is the true science, resting
upon clearly defined laws, rules, and principles of scientific
management which are applicable to all kinds of human activities, from
our simple individual acts to the work of our great corporations, which
call for the most elaborate co-operation. He also believed that
whenever these principles correctly applied, results must follow which
are truly.

Taylor expounded several basic principles:

1)To gather all traditional knowledge and classify, tabulate, and reduce
it to rules, laws, and formulas so as to help workers in their daily

2)To develop a science of each element of man's work to replace the
rule-of-thumb method.

3)To scientifically select and then train, teach, and develop the

4) To co-operate with workers to ensure is done according to developed
science principles.

5) To effect an almost equal division of work and responsibility between
workers and managers are to be given work for which they are best
fitted, as are employees.

He felt that faster work could be assured only through:

1)enforced standardisation of methods

2)enforced adaptation of best instruments and working conditions

3)enforced co-operation

Scientific management as a process involves:

1) time-and-motion studies to decide a standard for working;

2) a wage-incentive system that was a modification of the piecework
method already in existence;

already in existence;

3)changing the functional organisation.

Although he hasn't invented time-and-motion studies but did carry them
out more thoroughly than predecessors.

Among the experiments he performed to prove his theory were:

1. Work study:

One experiment detailed movements of workers in a shop and suggested
short cuts or more efficient ways of performing certain operations.
Within three years the output of the shop had doubled.

2. Standardised tools for shops:

In another area he found that the coal shovels being used weighed from
16 to 38 pounds. After experimenting, it was found that 21-22 pounds was
the best weight. Again, after three years 140 men were doing what had
previously been done by between 400 and 600 men.

3. Selection and training of workers:

Taylor insisted that each worker be assigned to do what he was best
suited for and that those who exceeded the defined work be paid
"bonuses." Production, as might be expected, rose to an all-time high.

Taylor, as a result of these experiments, advocated assignment of
supervisors by "function" - that is, one for training, one for
discipline, etc. This functional approach is evident today in many
organisations, including libraries.

Taylor took many of his concepts from the bureaucratic model developed
by Max Weber, particularly in regard to rules and procedures for the
conduct of work in organisations. Weber, the first to articulate a
theory of authority structure in organisations, distinguished between
power and authority, between compelling action and voluntary response.
He identified three characteristics which aided authority:

1) charisma (personality)

2) tradition (custom)

3) bureaucracy (through rules and regulations)

The concept of bureaucracy developed about the same time as scientific
management, and thoughts on specialisation of work, levels of authority,
and control all emerged from Weber's writings. Weber was more concerned
with the structure of the organisation in which people perform their
work roles, rather than with the individual. Most of his writings and
research related to the importance of specialisation in labour,
regulations and procedures, and the advantages of a hierarchical system
in making informed decisions.

Luther Gulick and Lyndal Urvick's Principals of Administration

The culmination of the Principles of Administration Approach was the
publication of Luther Gulick and Lyndall Urwick's Papers on the Science
of Administration. In that time, 1937, public administration scholars
had come to believe in a static set of principles by which any
organisation could be designed or its function improved. These
principles, implied that organisations were very much like machines, and
that managers could follow a set of formulae to maximise their

Luther Gulick and Lyndall Urwick are known in the world for the work
"Notes on a Theory of Organization" issued in 1937. They developed the
acronym POSDCORB to describe the administrative functions of managers.

tions of managers.

POSDCORB stands for:

Planning - Preparing methodical plans for managing programs;

Organising - Creating the different sub-units of the organisation;

Staffing - Hiring competent employees to fill vacancies;

Directing - Issuing directives with time and performance criteria;

Co-ordinating - Interrelating employees' effort efficiently;

Reporting - reports for superiors;

Budgeting - Preparing and executing budgets.

Analysis of two stands

An often repeated criticism of the scientific management approach is
that it overemphasised productivity and underemphasised human nature.
This criticism is well expressed by Amitai Etzioni, who wrote that
"although Taylor originally set out to study the interaction between
human characteristics and the characteristics of the machine, the
relationship between these two elements which make up the industrial
work process, he ended up by focusing on a far more limited subject: the
physical characteristics of the human body in routine jobs - e.g.,
shovelling coal or picking up loads. Eventually Taylor came to view
human and machine resources not so much as mutually adapt able, but
rather man functioning as an appendage to the industrial machine".
Similar criticism could be levelled at other movements within the
scientific management approach. The Scientific Management approach
directed to create scientific, specialized, technocratic environment
which makes it clear how to be more productive and maximize rewards. But
his theory can be seen as one-sided. You cannot interpret the human
being as a machine as it has it's own interest, it's own needs, that the
human being is a entity of the different moods and emotions. He hasn't
counted that the motivating factor for employees can be not only
monetary, worker can be motivated for example by the interest of working
in the particular field (e.g. teachers do not owe a lot of money from
their work but they are usually motivated by the interest working with
people; e.g. some tourists guides also do not owe a lot of money but
they are interested in meeting new people and travelling), experience
that he/she would gain through being on particular working place (e.g.
nurse doesn't get much money for her work, but she wants to get more
experience with time). It is also noted that

design of work procedures is not possible to establish in every field.

Luther Gulick and Lyndall Urwick tried to establish principles of
management to motivate worker they believed that economic efficiency
rooted in human tendency toward rationality and order.

As with the Principles of Administration Approach, subsequent experience
has shown public organisations, and the implementation process, to be
far more complex than was imagined in 1937.

The both of theories was searching for the "one best way of doing work"
for increasing of productivity, efficiency and effectiveness of
completing any work. But implementation of each of them has limited

effect on the productivity and depends on particular circumstances.

Not any of listed theories can be implemented in modern society,
specially in modern Public Administration, the reason for that is
extremely complicated human relations. Public Administration is a human
science therefore human behaviour plays the most important role in the
subject of PA.

Therefore, there is no use in implementing of the considered theories of
Science Management in practice.

List of Bibliography used:

1. Lecturer Notes.

2. Owen E Huges Public Management and Administration and Introduction,
Great Britain: Macmillan Press Limited, 1994.

3. Public Administration Biographies HYPERLINK http://www.usc.edu/
http://www.usc.edu/ .


HYPERLINK http://www.niu.edu/pub_ad/culhane/561.htm
http://www.niu.edu/pub_ad/culhane/561.htm .

5. Scope and Theory Of Public Policy





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