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Ministry of Education RS (Yakutia)

The Yakut state university name M.K. Ammosova

Physicotechnical institute

Power faculty

REFERAT

On a theme: NIKOLAEV AND YAKUTIA

ЭО-01


Vasil’ev M., Archaxov F., Mixailov A.

Has
checked up:


Zaxarova E.V.

Yakutsk 2002. THE CONTENTS

History ……………………………………………….…………………………………… 4

A few words about richness ………………………………………………. 5

Sovereignity …………………………………………………………………………… 6

Economic relations ………………………………………………………………... 8

Mikhail Nikolaev …………………………………………………………………... 10

The conclusion ………………………………………………………………………. 11

The used literature …………………………………………………………………… 14

Yakutia is a well-known place in the world since ancient time. But
Republic of Yakutia has received its own flag and stamp only recently,
with receiving of true sovereignity. In opinion of majority of Republic
citizens, both of state symbols most conciseness express historical
destiny of Yakutia native people, their present day, their future and
nature of the north country.

Present sovereign Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) is an exporter and
importer of goods production. But first of all a few words about
history.

HISTORY

Beginning from the 17th century, with coming of Cossackslandwalders to
the Lena river, the “Lena area”, as they called Yakutia, attracted
attention of Russian tzars, and their close surrounding. Of course,
attention of Russian authorities to Yakutia was called by political and
economical matters in difference of attention of scientists,
travellers, men of letters.

Union of new lands, need in famous Yakutian fur, which was carrying off
abroad, to European and Asian countries, filling up the state treasure,
were necessary. Economic potention of Yakutia especially in the 20th
century, grew exceedingly, although it continued to serve as pantry of
natural richnesses only.

A FEW WORDS ABOUT RICHNESS

Before this time richness of sakha people was cattle and its products,
such as meat, milk and butter. Besides of this, it was nature: sakha,
evenks, evens, jukagirs and local Russians, they were rigorous and
silent, and nourished to nature the most tender feeling, used its gifts
in necessary degree to live in these austere conditions. Furs were used
only for practice. But in other hand, with sewing of clothes esthetical
feeling of the people was manifested, they decorated their clothes with
patterns, beads, other fur.

In the first half of the 17th century fairies appeared on the northeast,
and beginning in June 25,1768 a decree of Senate on instituting of
official fairies in Irkutsk, Yakutsk, Udinsk was adopted, Astonishing
fact was the quantity of merchants of second and third guilde, in
Yakutsk in 1823 they were 43, in Olyekminsk they were 10, in Vilyuisk –
8.

That’s why in the end of the 19th century Yakutian merchants traded on

s traded on
huge area not only in the area of north-east, they had exited to Japan,
China, and other countries. In the 20th century famous merchant families
gathered put together, such as Averenskie, Astrafhantsevy, Molotcovy,
Nikiforovy, and many others.

SOVEREIGNITY

Today, when the Republic of Sakha stands enough firmly on the base of
sovereignity, it has possibility to trade itself with different states.
The Republic is establishing international political and economic
relations with its foreign partners, a number of intergovernmental
agreements with countries of CIS and foreign countries were signed.
Constant and Trade Representations of the Republic of Sakha were created
in Latvia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, in several regions of Russian
Federation.

There is almost all the Mendeleev table in Yakutia. Not in vain our
ancestry made a proverb: “Nobody can desolate to bottom the chest of
nature…” On the other hand Mikhail Nikolaev is right saying: “we must
extract, produce and sell such quantity of production, that Yakutian
will live in security”. In his work “Yakutia on the border of centuries”
he stresses, that “it is necessary for the Republic to be directed on
European countries, and especially to countries of Asian and Pacific
ocean regions”.

First Yakutian jewelry plant give its production. In 1992 it gave
products for 10 million roubles per day, now is achieved much more high
level. There are things of gold, diamond, silver. Add to this fur,
mamont bone, foal meat, deer meat, wood, coal, gas and so on. Republic
of Sakha has something to offer to foreign customer,, and it can support
our cultural connections, which have deep tradition, is coming of
delegation of 47 people from brother-town Muroyama (Japan), the
delegation carried out a number of important appointment, including
appointment with the head of Yakutsk Alexey Tomtosov, rector of the
university Vasily Philipov and others. Delegations from Austria, Great
Britain, China, the USA and other countries desire visitors us.

ECONOMIC RELATIONS

But distinct character of our present connections must be mutually
beneficial economical relations. The Republic has worked out 22 state
and complex programmes of development, including almost all spheres of
life and activity of population, and branches of economy and culture.
Each of them requires large investments and provides their realization
with taking part of other foreign firms, companies and countries.
Change of Republican economy character (from extracting industry to
processing one is planned by foreign firms.

There are first signs of such cooperation. Austrian firms have built
Medical center and non-alcohol squashes plant in Yakutsk. Swatzer
MABETEXGRUPP, having built milk plant has built House of Maternity and
childhood protection. Canadian builders have “Canadian village” of 37
cottages with autonomous provision for talented children of the
Republic. State company of Foreign Trade SAKHAVNESHOPTTORG was
established in the Republic, president of the Company is Andrew Popov.

ic, president of the Company is Andrew Popov.
Having special divisions, SAKHAVNESHOPTTORG imports wood processing
equipment, machines and tools for building, technological conveyers on
processing of meat, fish, milk, newest medical technique and medicines,
leading medical technology, transport. means, clothes and shoes for all
seasons, food and other goods.

Export division is standing on its feet, too. SAKHAVNESHOPTTORG does
operates on a number of main positions. They export to external market
large sawing wood, timber, sawing materials, fur: squirrel, ermine,
sable, for: production of deer-breeding: pants (spring horns), broken
horns, organs of northern deer, energetic coal and so on. Having such
firms as SAKHABULT, SAKHALES, SAKHAAS, YAKUTALMAS, YAKUTUGOL and other,
our Republic will consolidate economical, trade and cultural connections
with other countries.

Many positive developments in the economy and culture of the region are
justifiably linked with the name of the first President of the Republic
of Sakha (Yakutia), Mikhail Nikolaev. The stable situation in the
Republic, the mutual understanding and co-operation with the leadership
and regions of Russia, with the countries of the CIS and the “far
abroad” – owe much to him. In December 1993 he was elected deputy to the
Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation. The President of Russia,
Boris Yeltsin, rated highly Mikhail Nikolaev as President of the
Republic of Sakha (Yakutia).

MIKHAIL NIKOLAEV

On 20 December 1991 Mikhail Nikolaev was elected the president of the
Republic of Sakha (Yakutia). In his remarks to the citizens of the
Republic on the third anniversary of the declaration of sovereignty of
the Republic he stressed that “the constructive policies of the Republic
of Sakha for solving its internal problems and also for its relations
with the Russian Federation are attracting the attention of the
Federation’s subjects and raise the authority of the Republic inside as
well as outside of it borders…”

During two years since the December 1991 elections Yakutians have been
able to satisfy themselves that the political goals of the Republic are
achieving at ensuring the well-being of the people and welfare safety
net for the population at a difficult stage in the development of market
economy. These policies have as their fundamental goal the rebirth of
the multinational people of the republic and the strengthening of the
centuries old traditional ties with Russia.

Elected by all the people, the first President of the Republic of Sakha,
Mikhail Nikolaev, has become the acknowledged leader of the peoples of
Yakutia through his practical efforts for the good of the northern
peoples. Many things have been achieved. Chief among them – the shaping
and strengthening of the Republic of Sakha as a sovereign state within
Russia, the signing the Federal Agreement, signing of the agreement on
economic co-operation with the Russian Federation, as a result of which
the Republic received the right to dispose of 20 per cent of gem-grade

ht to dispose of 20 per cent of gem-grade
diamonds, 100 per cent of industrial diamonds, 12 per cent of gold and
other resources. An agreement has been signed clarifying the status of
state property, belonging both to the Republic of Sakha and to the
Russian Federation, and providing for the creation of budget tax levies.
The Republic of Sakha has adopted the Constitution. With the active
support of the president, the foundations were being set for the
development of production capacity, 950 enterprises have been put on a
new management basis, more than 2.700 farms have been established,
diamond cutting was being developed, as well as other processing
industries.

THE CONCLUSION

Today, the Republic of Sakha has its own constitution and its own
president. Sakha has embarked on the path of sovereign, equal and
independent development. It follows that, from now, it will find its own
solutions to social, economic and cultural problems. It offers to
co-operate with other peoples on the basis of equal relations in trade,
science, politics and culture. Its freedom, newly won, will enable the
potential of the Sakha people as a whole, and of each individual, to
flower fully. Like the culture of other nation, the culture of Sakha
brings its own special contribution to world culture. The granite
monument in Moscow to Aleksey Kulakovsky, founder of Yakut literature,
is testimony to this.

There are many differences between our nations. But there are many
common things, too. Every morning sun rise in the East, its rays
illuminate snow ridges of Yakutia, reflecting in waves of its
full-watered reverse, and roaming in unlimited taiga, these rays carry
their light and warmness to the West. We are one of the nations in the
planet, who meet sun first of all people. We meet sun with hope of
peace, harmony and kind human relations.

The used literature:

1. State Company of External Trade SAKHAVNESHOPTTRG Instituted by
Decree of Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) President from 21.07.92.

2. Yakutia - Russia: 370 years together. NKI “Bichik” Republic of Sakha
(Yakutia), 2002.



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